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To perform an effective job of controlling a process, we need to know how the control input we are proposing to use will affect the output of the process. If we change the input conditions we need to know the following:

- Will the output rise or fall?
- How much response will we get?
- How long will it take for the output to change? .
- What will be the response curve or trajectory of the response?

The answers to these questions are best obtained by creating a mathematical model of the relationship between the chosen input and the output of the process in question. Process control designers use a very useful technique of block diagram modeling to assist in the representation of the process and its control system. The following section introduces the principles that should apply to most practical control loop situations.

The process plant is represented by an input/output block as shown in the figure.

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